ITM 2018 Exhibitor Preview: KARL MAYER

OBERTSHAUSEN, Germany — March 29, 2018 — KARL MAYER has prepared well for its trip to the ITM exhibition in Istanbul and expectations are running high. For the duration of this International Textile Machinery exhibition, which runs from April 14-17, 2018, this well-known manufacturer can be found in hall 7, stand 709 in the Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center in Istanbul.

The focus of the stand is innovative machine systems and technical solutions, which are opening up new opportunities on the Turkish market. “We are showing an HKS 3-M producing a newly developed voile-like net curtain pattern,” said Bastian Fritsch, a Senior Sales Manager at Karl Mayer. “As far as warp-knitted net curtains and embroidery grounds are concerned, we are expecting some interesting conversations with companies new to this sector concerning new expansion plans and projects.”

He is also expecting many enquiries concerning the production of home textiles in general, as well as outerwear fabrics on high-speed tricot, jacquard and multibar raschel machines. These include lightweight fabrics with a variety of different grounds and superimposed designs produced on an HKS 4-M EL, as well as stylish lace designs created on a LACE.EXPRESS. Fritsch is certain that terry fabrics as well, especially those produced on the TM 4 TS, will also be a hot topic at the ITM trade fair. “Warp-knitted terry fabrics have more firmly anchored loops and can be produced more efficiently than similar woven goods,” he said. “And they can be patterned with a wide variety of different designs.” This sales expert is showing examples made from polyester as well as cotton at the fair. The presentation of warp knitting technology is complemented by some innovative products produced by double-bar raschel technology: trendy shoe fabrics, stylish spacer fabrics for rucksacks, and plush fabrics. Anyone with any questions on these products or any other applications will be able to discuss them with Karl Mayer’s experts in textile development.

As far as warp preparation is concerned, Karl Mayer is exhibiting as an expert partner in the denim sector. The company is showing a LONG CHAIN BEAMER, a BALL WARPER, and models of the PRODYE indigo dyeing machine and the DOUBLE VARIO dyeing unit for use in the production of jeans. Dieter Gager, the Sales Director of Karl Mayer’s Warp Preparation Business Unit says that the PRODYE range of products is already well established on the Turkish market, and this position is being strengthened by the company’s participation in the fair.

For anyone interested in technical textiles, this company has many ideas and suggestions relating to the production of composites, especially for the construction industry – with textile concrete being the buzzword here.

Karl Mayer has once again hit the bull’s eye with its innovative presentation and has again become the meeting point for the sector, which is exactly what the exhibition team expected. “The ITM fair is always an exceptional platform for us, enabling us to make contact with our customers, both big and small, and to support them in their day-to-day operations,” says Roland Kunze, managing director of Karl Mayer’s local agent, ERKO. He bases this on some interesting conversations he has had on technical possibilities, future projects and promising initiatives. The trade fair is an important link between the past, the present and the future – which is important for guaranteeing the company’s continuing partnerships with its customers.

Oliver Mathews, sales director of the Warp Knitting Business Unit, is also delighted at the large number of visitors attending the ITM. “In the last few years, Turkey has become one of our three most important markets. We are also starting from a good business position and are looking forward to a lively fair with plenty of visitors.”

Posted March 29, 2018

Source: KARL MAYER Textilmaschinenfabrik GmbH

Do you want to experience KARL MAYER live at certain events and meet us personally?

Do you want to experience KARL MAYER live at certain events and meet us personally? You will have this opportunity at the following worldwide trade fairs and events. We are looking forward to your visit.

  • Indo Intertex

    04/04/2018 – 07/04/2018

    Indo Intertex

    Indonesia / Jakarta International Expo. 

    Warp knitting and Technical Textiles
    Hall B3 / Stand No 32.

    Warp preperation 
    Stand: Hall B3/BC, booth 84 (Agansa)

  • Saigontex

    11/04/2018 – 14/04/2018


    Vietnam / Ho Chi Minh City
    Hall A1, Booth 1L-1

  • ITM

    14/04/2018 – 17/04/2018


    Turkey / Istanbul
    Hall 7 / Stand 709

  • 21/08/2018 – 24/08/2018


    Brasil / Blumenau


KARL MAYER successfully participated in the JEC World trade fair in Paris

06.-08.03.2018: Many visitors, valuable suggestions

KARL MAYER Technische Textilien GmbH looks back on a successful JEC World 2018. This textile machinery manufacturer joined the leading trade fair of the composite sector in Paris from 6. to 8. March with a well-attended information stand on the topic of multi-axial warp knitting machines and fiber spreading units. „I am very satisfied with the response to our exhibition in Paris. Not only the number but also the internationality of the visitors was good“, concluded Jochen Schmidt, President of KARL MAYER Technische Textilien GmbH. Of course, the guests came from Europe but many of them also from China as well as from the USA, India and Turkey. The discussions confirmed already known trends, but they also provided new ideas.

Affordable lightweight components with adequate performance

Numerous conversations during the exhibition were about lightweight solutions with automated production, high reproducibility and well-balanced price-performance ratio. Carbon fibers are still too expensive, and they are only used if the performance requirements do not allow any other option. This was clearly demonstrated by the specific demands for aerospace applications. But even here cost optimization is needed, focusing on the targeted use of dry carbon fiber layer structures as alternative to the cost-intensive prepregs.

Cheaper than carbon fibers and improved in terms of properties, glass is becoming increasingly interesting for many applications, explained Jochen Schmidt. For the glass processing, KARL MAYER Technische Textilien GmbH can offer its COP MAX 4. On this multi-axial warp knitting machine it is possible to produce dry glass layers which, according to Jochen Schmidt, are especially in demand by the wind energy market, but increasingly also by the automotive industry.

Another approach to a cost-optimizd manufacture of composites was presented by KARL MAYER with the „VARIO LAYING“ procedure. This innovative method ensures a mechanical and load path-oriented positioning of the carbon fibers just during the production of dry glass layers.

Alexander Wegner from KARL MAYER’s exhibition team and Senior Manager Application Technology, explained that the use of glass is also becoming increasingly interesting for another trend area of the composite industry: namely for thermoplastic applications. He went on to say that in the overall production process, thermoplastic composites made from glass layers are cheaper than duroplastic composites, but for their manufacture they require a special know-how, in particular during spreading. Nevertheless, with its fiber spreading unit UD 700, KARL MAYER is well positioned for the future. „The market is increasingly demanding for glass layers with low surface weights. For this purpose, the glass fibers must be spread as homogeneously as possible. And precisely this brings our technology into play“, concluded Alexander Wegner.

For this applications engineer and his colleagues, the information and ideas gathered during the tradeshow in Paris are a valuable source of inspiration for further innovations with benefits for the customers.

Establishing contacts and showing presence – KARL MAYER’s successful participation in DTG Bangladesh, 08.-11.02.2018 in Dhaka

After four days, the DTG Bangladesh ended successfully on 11. February 2018. This leading trade fair for machines of the textile and clothing industry took place at the Bangabandhu International Conference Center in Dhaka, and had roughly 1,100 exhibitors from 36 countries. KARL MAYER was also among the exhibiting companies; this enterprise belongs to the leading manufacturers of the international textile machine construction. The global player attended the event on the stand of its regional agent, the Pacific Associates Ltd., and was very satisfied with its participation in the trade fair. „We were able to present us and our products, and could make a lot of new contacts“, said Mark Smith, Sales Manager of KARL MAYER’s Warp Knitting Business Unit. In the course of the numerous discussions during the exhibition he noticed the trend towards reorientation to in-house production. A lot of manufacturers who have traditionally imported fabrics for making garments, are now cosidering to set up their own in-house textile production. Warp knitting and, thus, KARL MAYER plays a significant role in their considerations.

The experts of KARL MAYER’s Warp Preparation Business Unit also had interesting and fruitful discussions during the event, mainly with customers who are already operating KARL MAYER machines. As a whole, the company draws a positive trade fair summary.

KARL MAYER is becoming a partner in ADAMOS and will reap the benefits of joining a strong global alliance

As far as KARL MAYER is concerned, digitization is an important driver of growth, productivity and innovation. This manufacturer is one of the innovative market leaders and driving force for innovations in textile machinery building. KARL MAYER offers solutions for warp knitting, technical textiles and warp preparation.

KARL MAYER has now joined the ADAMOS alliance of industrial and software companies as its seventh partner. ADAMOS is a strategic alliance of machinery and plant engineering firms and stands for ADAptive Manufacturing Open Solutions. This joint venture was set up to tackle Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), which are key issues for the future. As part of this, ADAMOS is committed to close cooperation and the exchange of expertise.

According to Arno Gärtner, CEO of the KARL MAYER Group, “Joining the strategic ADAMOS Alliance is the next step in our digitization strategy. ADAMOS brings together experts in mechanical engineering and information technology to help provide high added value for customers. With this involvement we will gain access to an open IIoT environment which is specifically focused on the needs of machinery and plant construction.”

As a pioneer in textile machine building, KARL MAYER pursues a broadly conceived digitization strategy: for one, the aim is to boost productivity within the company’s own added value chain to the customers’ benefit; and secondly, the intention is to develop new market-supporting business models, products and services involving digitization.

Back in November 2017, the company founded KARL MAYER Digital Factory GmbH in order to develop advanced digital competences in an agile environment. And now KARL MAYER Digital Factory GmbH too has taken a stake in ADAMOS GmbH.

This means that the company can access digital skills quickly and develop new digital solutions and services at the speed required.


ADAMOS was founded as a strategic alliance for the future topics of Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). ADAMOS stands for ADAptive Manufacturing Open Solutions. ADAMOS is the first alliance of global market leaders in machinery and plant engineering. The ADAMOS alliance aims at combining the know-how from mechanical engineering, production and information technology to produce a high level of added value and establishing standards for digital production.

ADAMOS is specially tailored to the needs of machinery and plant engineering companies and their customers. ADAMOS offers machine builders an open, manufacturer-neutral IIoT environment based on leading technologies. Every ADAMOS partner smooths its customers’ path to digitization and offers them opportunities to use tried and tested solutions for digitally networked production at moderate expense.

KARL MAYER is demonstrating innovative strength and a good feel for the market at the ITM exhibition

14.-17.04.2018, in hall 7, stand 709 in the Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center in Istanbul

KARL MAYER has been operating successfully on the Turkish market for many years now, so that it is imperative for this company to exhibit at the ITM trade fair being held from 14 to 17 April 2018 in Istanbul. This manufacturer is exhibiting in hall 7, stand 709 at this international textile machinery fair as an innovative partner in the warp knitting and warp preparation sectors, and one which can offer leading brands many new ideas and concepts.

A machine show and textile innovations for the Turkish market

KARL MAYER is specifically targeting producers of home textiles and stylish, functional clothing by exhibiting products for the warp knitting sector. For its visitors, this company is presenting a performance show of the HKS 3-M, with a working width of 218″, and has prepared a number of decorative islands to illustrate a variety of applications. The focus of these platforms, which are designed to provide inspiration, are lace fabrics for creating stylish apparel, terry goods made from polyester and cotton, and double-bar raschel technology with its many different possibilities for designing sports shoes, rucksacks and plush articles – products that are currently a hot trend in Turkey – which means that expectations are high. “In the last three years, Turkey has been one of our three most important markets. We are also starting from a good business position and we are expecting a busy fair with many visitors,” says Oliver Mathews. For the Sales Director of KARL MAYER’s Warp Knitting Business Unit, chatting with his visitors and customers is an important way of stimulating new innovation. “I hope to gather more impulses for new developments and products that the market needs from KARL MAYER, especially in view of the upcoming ITMA exhibition, which is scheduled for next year.”

New innovations in net curtains, lace, terry goods and RD products

Net curtains are the focus of KARL MAYER’s machine presentation at the ITM exhibition – and this is proving to be a great success. “Warp-knitted net curtains are still strong in Turkey. The number of our customers focusing on the production of warp-knitted net curtains and embroidery grounds is increasing all the time,” says Roland Kunze, the Managing Director of KARL MAYER’s agent, ERKO. The company’s customers are extremely imaginative and are always on the lookout for something new. And they are definitely not being disappointed in KARL MAYER. The HKS 3-M on show at the ITM fair is producing a new, lightweight voile fabric with striking shimmering effects in the ground and a striped design in a gauge of E 28. The patterns produced on the HKS 4-M EL, equipped with one more guide bar and EL control, are illustrating the types of designs can be produced for the outerwear market. The lightweight, semi-transparent designs have a striking lace-like appearance. Symmetrical patterns are placed on filigree, tulle-like grounds having a subtle shimmer, which is highlighted effectively by the textured effects of the yarns used. The EL control facility enables a wide variety of motif shapes and virtually unlimited repeat lengths to be worked.

Another focal point for the fashion sector is the stylish lace designs produced by the LACE. EXPRESS. Roland Kunze is certain that, “We are opening up new market opportunities for lace producers with the OJ 83/1 B especially – a machine that has a particularly advantageous cost:benefit ratio,” and he is looking forward to receiving many enquiries.

The TM 4 TS can also be used to generate new market potential. This high-performance terry warp knitting machine scores points over its counterparts in the weaving sector for processing staple-fibre yarns to produce fabrics with firmly anchored loops at an unbeatable production rate. These latest new developments are also demonstrating a real spirit of inventiveness. For example, a split terry fabric, consisting of a cotton side having a high absorbency and a side made from polyester with a fluffy feel, is being shown at the ITM exhibition

Sophisticated warp preparation technology for the denim sector

KARL MAYER is an expert in warp preparation for the denim sector. The company is showcasing a LONG CHAIN BEAMER (Fig. 5) and a BALL WARPER for use in the production of jeans. A PRODYE indigo dyeing machine and DOUBLE VARIO dyeing unit are also on show.

Together with slasher dyeing, the PRODYE S indigo dyeing machine has been widely used by Turkish producers for some time now. The new PRODYE R rope dyeing machine has already found its first new buyers. KARL MAYER is basing its exhibition at the fair on what it has already achieved. “We want to build on the success we have had with our indigo dyeing machines and strengthen our position on the Turkish market,” says Dieter Gager. This Sales Director in KARL MAYER’s Warp Preparation Business Unit is also hoping to attract interest from neighbouring Iran and other countries bordering Iran. “As a regional fair, the ITM exhibition is an excellent platform for us to network and showcase our products.”

Textiles for fashion and composites

Together with warp knitting and warp preparation, technical textiles are the third focal point of KARL MAYER’s show. The company is exhibiting as an experienced partner to the composites sector, and is offering machines for producing concrete reinforcement – textile concrete being the buzzword here – and the construction sector. And the company is also bringing fashion into the mix. Lightweight, stylish, weft-inserted warp knits can be produced on the WEFTTRONIC® II HKS and used in remarkable clothing collections.

KARL MAYER launches the COP 5 M-EL onto the market

New edition of the five-bar tricot machine

As of autumn 2017, a five-bar tricot machine will once again feature in KARL MAYER’s machine programme. This new machine is designated the COP 5 M-EL, which says a great deal about its origins. It is a “best of both” machine and is the result of combining the latest, most successful technical components and concepts developed by KARL MAYER with those of the former company, LIBA. The basic design of the COP 5 M-EL is the same as that of its predecessor, which was developed by KARL MAYER’s Naila-based competitor, which it subsequently took over. KARL MAYER has incorporated its tried-and-tested modules from its standard range, such as the EL control facility, the KAMCOS® 1 system and the batching unit. The working width of 186″ also corresponds to the current formats of the well established HKS models. The gauge is currently E 28, but a version having a gauge of E 20 will be available at the beginning of 2018. Several enquiries relating to the coarser version of the machine have already been made by the shoe fabric sector. But producers of sports goods, upholstery fabrics, automotive textiles, coating/backing substrates and apparel fabrics should also find the COP 5 M-EL extremely interesting. The electronic guide bar control facility makes the machine extremely flexible and the five guide bars also allow a large number of designs to be produced. For example, if the two guide bars at the rear of the knitting point are used to process elastane in conjunction with using an additional guide bar for the ground, two guide bars are now available for working the designs. These include, for example, multicoloured patterns worked using multicoloured threading arrangements. But attractive designs can also be worked from counter-notation patterns and partially threaded arrangements. Processing trials currently being carried out at KARL MAYER illustrate the design potential of the COP 5 M-EL. “We have developed and worked several lappings and patterns. Throughout all the tests, the machine was operating at a nominal speed and exhibited smooth and stable running characteristics,” said Rainer Kemper, Senior Manager Product Management, with some satisfaction. Samples are available to examine in the Patterns section of this issue, together with the technical details.

The maximum operating speed of the COP 5 M-EL is 1,200 min-1. Like all KARL MAYER’s products, this new, five-bar tricot machine is extremely ergonomic and of the highest quality. Its durability and reliability are also exceptional. Users will also benefit from all the technical support services provided by the company, such as training courses held by the KARL MAYER Academy, advice on technical matters and usage, and rapid service calls if required.

You weave what you size

Perfect weaving results, thanks to KARL MAYER’s PROSIZE®

The PROSIZE® sizing machine (Fig. 1) is a bestseller for KARL MAYER ROTAL. This innovative machine was premiered at ITMA 2015 in Milan, and sales have been running into double digits ever since.

It has been bought by companies all over the world, especially in India, Asia and Western Europe. The range of applications of the machine is as varied as the types of manufacturers that have bought it. The machine’s most important end-use is in garment and home textile production, followed by manufacture of denim and woven shirtings – which occupies second place on the list of most frequent end-uses – and by terry fabrics, bed linen and woollen goods at place 3. The PROSIZE® also offers specific advantages for all the various textile sectors. To illustrate these more clearly, it would be worth taking a closer look at the heart of the PROSIZE®, i.e. VSB and HSB (Fig. 2) size boxes.

Better yarn coverage, improved denim quality

The size boxes operate with an application system for which a patent has been applied and granted. A new feature is that an immersion bath is no longer used. Instead of the usual immersion bath, the size is applied in two, highly turbulent, homogeneous application zones, with spray bar technology and a subsequent application/squeeze roller system (Figs. 3). The so-called sponge effect comes into play here: in the first zone, the dry yarn is dipped into the wedge of liquor between the two rollers, squeezed, and then impregnated again in the second zone. The moist yarn can then absorb the sizing agent more effectively. The bundled yarn feed means that yarn coverage densities of 100% are possible, 20% higher than with conventional immersion processes (Fig. 4). The quality is high, despite the yarns lying very close to each other. Unsized areas are reliably avoided. The higher size uptake and associated yarn coverage density means that the process can be changed over from double to single size box processing in the denim, home textiles and clothing sectors, for example; this is beneficial to the sizing result. The one-bath system simplifies process control and the adjustment of the wetting quality. When producing bed linen, for example, high-quality sized warps can be produced in a working width of 2,800 mm, and there is no risk of the yarns sticking together. The advantages of the one-bath process are being made use of in India especially. Here, a total of 18 customers have invested in a new PROSIZE® machine in the last 24 months, and many of them have even ordered two or more machines. The machines are destined mainly for use in the production of raw woven fabrics.

Lower yarn coverage, increased speed in the terry business

The application system, with its stable yarn feed via the clamping device at the roller pairs, is particularly advantageous at low yarn coverage densities. The lower limit is 20%, which is 10% lower than with conventional technologies (Fig. 4). This is a particular advantage when producing terry goods. These fluffy bathroom textiles are produced with warps having just a few yarns per cm. Because of their twist and moisture content, the yarns have a tendency to twist against each other during sizing and form cords and stick together, especially at high speeds. As the yarns are transported in a guided manner, this negative effect remains. With the PROSIZE®, warps for terry goods can be processed at a maximum speed of 180 m/min, and produced without any superimposed yarns. This represents a speed increase of 20% compared to the ISOSIZE, which can also be used.

Broader yarn coverage, increased productivity when producing home textiles

In addition to the density, the width of the yarn coverage can also be increased. This is also due to the guided passage of the yarns through the size box, but especially to a special design feature. Thanks to this clever design, the rollers support each other. There is no bending, even at large working widths. This makes the size coating extremely uniform, the yarns do not stick together, and a new PROSIZE® with a working width of 3,200 mm has emerged. This wide machine is particularly suitable for producers of home textiles, who process large fabric webs. The example of a Portuguese high-end manufacturer shows the advantages quite clearly: this company uses a sizing machine with a working width of 1,800 mm and a single size box to produce warp beams comprising 9,000 yarns. Two of these beams are processed on one loom. With the new PROSIZE®, the required number of yarns can be treated at a higher coverage density on just one warp beam, which increases efficiency and productivity considerably. Single beam processing also improves the quality, i.e. the yarns that are to be woven come from the same sizing process and thus have an identical size coating.

Fewer rejects in the event of stoppages, fewer losses in shirt production

The spray technology avoids yarn rejects in the event of long machine downtimes. This differs from immersion process, i.e. if the machine stops, the yarns remain at this position in the size and the stoppage marks prevent them from being used. This is a real disadvantage, especially when the warps have to be changed frequently and quickly, such as when producing high-quality shirtings. Short runs and frequently changing colours are required in this sector. The spraying process also offers advantages when processing multiple colours, i.e. in conjunction with fine filtration, transfer between the colours of the yarns is avoided.

Small bath volumes, lower costs, reduced environmental impact and less splashing

The clever process design allows smaller bath volumes to the used, and thus reduces the consumption of size additives (by as much as 10%). Effluent loads, and the time and effort needed for desizing are also decreased. Less liquid also means less splashing. The concentrated liquid flow also reduces sizing agent losses and enables the ergonomics to be optimised, i.e. there is no need for a splash protection device, and free access to the size application system is guaranteed, e.g. for cleaning and dealing with yarn breakages. Vertical delivery of the warp sheet (Fig. 5) also means that the VSB makes even more space available for carrying out simple manual adjustments. The operative also has an unrestricted view of the entire process.

Greater uniformity in sizing, better efficiency in weaving

Thanks to the intensive size circulation in the highly turbulent application zones, dead zones are avoided and concentrations, temperatures and viscosities are equalised. The size layer on the circumference of the yarn is also uniform. The clever roller arrangement means that the warp yarns in the wedge absorb size on the upper and lower sides. Furthermore, only size that has been filtered is applied to the yarn. This performance produces an extremely uniform coating over the width and length of the warp, which is beneficial for the subsequent stages in the value-added chain. Much less fibre fly is generated in weaving, which increases efficiency considerably (Fig. 6).

Lace – perfect for clothes and bags alike

Exceptional panel fabrics produced on an OJ 59/1 B for an unconventional use

Lace makes lingerie seductive and produces eye-catching apparel, and can also be used to create stylish, striking looks for other end-uses. Therefore, the motto of Olga Luzikov’s master’s thesis was “Re-thinking lace”. This student at the Hochschule Reutlingen (Reutlingen University) studied a number of new possibilities and was supported in her efforts by KARL MAYER. She used its new OJ 59/1 B machine to produce a brightly coloured design with a graphic look. “We decided not to use a classic lace look for this student project,” said Daniela Breuer, a textile developer at KARL MAYER, who was on hand to provide help and advice to Olga Luzikov. Instead, these two designers decided to use graphics, multicoloured effects and a variety of different structures. The base was made up of different jacquard grounds featuring a variety of dense, linear and mesh constructions to create a lively look. The design was made even more dynamic by using matt/shiny contrasting effects and bright colours. The brightly coloured ensemble was produced by processing spin-dyed yarns, some of which were multicoloured yarns, and then dyeing the finished raw fabric. The result was a lace to suit every need. The innovative design is perfect for producing apparel and for creating new and different looks for backpacks, bags and shoes, for example. The city bag shown on this page combines the lace with a warp-knitted spacer textile. The durable 3D textile provides adequate strength in those areas subjected to the most wear, such as the base and fastening section, and also creates an effective contrast to the filigree, decorative material in the middle part. Well then – happy shopping!

KARL MAYER is showcasing market-specific and innovative systems at the ITM exhibition

Hall 7, stand 709 in the Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center in Istanbul, which is taking place from 14.-17.04.2018

KARL MAYER is exhibiting at this year’s ITM exhibition in hall 7, stand 709 as an innovative partner in the warp knitting and warp preparation sectors, and one which can offer leading brands many new ideas and concepts. KARL MAYER is specifically targeting producers of home textiles and stylish, functional clothing by exhibiting products for the warp knitting sector. For its visitors, the company has prepared a machine show and a number of decorative islands to illustrate a variety of applications. The focus of these platforms, which are intended to generate new ideas, is lace fabrics for lingerie and clothing, terry goods made from polyester and cotton, warp-knitted spacer textiles and plush articles. Net curtains are the focus of the machine presentation. KARL MAYER is an expert in warp preparation for the denim sector, and KARL MAYER Technische Textilien GmbH is showcasing innovative systems for the composites and building sectors.